1. The sun's energy is the original energy source for the various cycles, fuels, food production, and other systems that occur on Earth.
2. Energy and matter cannot be created nor can it be destroyed (also called the Law of Conservation of Energy and Matter).
3. When water changes phases it is due to energy release (water to ice) or energy absorption (water to vapor) and is a physical change, not a chemical change.
4. When different types of energy convert from one form to another (such as mechanical to electrical), no energy disappears - it only gets converted.
5. Producers (plants) make their own food through photosynthesis, while consumers (such as animals) must acquire their food through nutrition.
6. Animal cells differ from plant cells in two basic ways - animal cells lack cell walls and chloroplasts.
7. Producers (plants) make up the bottom of an ecological pyramid, herbivorous consumers make the midsection of the pyramid, and omnivorous/carnivorous consumers make up the top of the pyramid.
8.The Hertzsprung-Russel Diagram plots stars based on their absolute brightness versus surface temperature to result in a generalized classification system of stars in main sequence, blue dwarf, or red giant groupings.
9. When looking at a sedimentary rock column, the oldest layer is on the bottom, while the youngest layer is on the top. This is the same for fossils embedded within the layers.
10. When a cold air mass approaches a warm air mass, the denser cold air moves under the less dense warm air, which creates rainy/stormy weather where the two air masses meet.
11. Asexual reproduction produces offspring that are identical to the original singular parent, while sexual reproduction combines the genes of two separate parents to produce genetically varied offspring. Each method has ecological advantages and disadvantages.
12. For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. This can be applied to forces and motion.
13. Fixed-position objects at higher elevations possess more potential energy than when they are positioned at lower elevations.
14. An object at rest will remain at rest unless acted on by an unbalanced force. An object in motion continues in motion with the same speed and in the same direction unless acted upon by an unbalanced force.
15. Acceleration is produced when a force acts on a mass. The greater the mass (of the object being accelerated) the greater the amount of force needed (to accelerate the object).